Perlawanan Bangsa Terjajah Atas Harkat dan Martabat Bangsa: Telaah Postkolonial Atas Tiga Sajak Indonesia Modern

Puji Santosa(1*)

(1) Pusat Bahasa, Jalan Daksinapati Barat IV, Rawamangun, Jakarta Timur
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kesadaran kebangsaan mengenyahkan peniajahan adalah persoalan nasionalisme suatu bangsa. Nasionalisme di wilayah jajahan adalah reaksi dari tekanan-tekanan sosial dan poliris yang beraneka macam dari para penjajah. Indonesia telah mengalami penjajahan bcrulang kali, seperti penjajahan Portugis, Belanda, Inggris, dan Jepang. Jejak-jejak penjajahan bangsa Eropa dan bangsa Asia Timur Raya tersebut di Indonesia terekam secara jelas dalam sastra Indonesia modern, misalnya dalam tiga sajak Indonesia modern, yaitu sajak "Hang Tuah" karya Amir Hamzah yang merekam jejak pcrlawanan terhadap kolonial bangsa Postugis, sajak "Apa Kata Laut Banda" karya Mansur Samin yang merekam jejak perlawanan pahlawan Maluku terhadap kolonial bangsa Belanda, dan sajak "Sontanglelo" karya Mansur Samin yang merekam jejak perlawanan pcmuda Batak terhadap penjajahan bangsa Jepang. Ketiga sajak Indonesia modem itu dipilih sebagai percontoh pembicaraan tentang kritik postkolonial dengan alasan: (1) Ketiga sajak di atas merekam sejarah bangsa tentang jejak- jejak penjajahan di Indonesia, yakni suatu semangat kesadaran anak bangsa unluk berdaulat, terbebas dari penjajahan serta membangkitkan semangat nasionalisme bangsa, (2) Ketiga sajak di atas ditulis dalam bentuk puisi naratif atau balada yang berisi kisah perlawanan anak bangsa terhadap kolonial, yakni diwakili oleh tokoh Hang Tuah yang rnengadakan perlawanan terhadap bangsa Portugis, tokoh Maria Christina Martha yang mcngadakan perlawanan terhadap bangsa Belanda, dan tokoh Sontanglelo yang mengadakan pcrlawanan terhadap bangsa Jepang. Wujud perlawanan kctiga tokoh di atas merupakan reaksi atas tekanan sosial dan politik dari para kolonialis untuk pembebasan negerinya.

Abstract:
National awareness to evict colonialization is a nationalism issue of a nation. Nationalism in a colourized territory is a reaction from various social and political pressures of the colonizers. Indonesia had suffered from colonialization for many times, such as colonializations by Portuguese, Dutch, English, and Japanese. The trajectories of European and East Asian colonialization in Indonesia have clearly recorded in modem Indonesian literature, for instance in three modern Indonesian poems, namely "Hang Tuah", written by Amir Hamzah which recorded the resistance trajectory against Portuguese colonial, '' Apa Kata Laut Banda" written by Mansur Samin which recorded the resistance trdject01y of Maluku's heroine against the Dutch colonial, and "Sontanglelo" written by Mansur Samin which recorded the resistance trajectory of a Barak young man against Japanese colonial. The three modem Indonesian poems are selected as examples in a discussion of the postcolonial critic by the reasons: (1) The three poems are records of the national history about colonial trajectory in Indonesia, i.c. a spirit of a national awareness to independent, free from colonialism and arousing the nationalism spirit of a nation. (2) The three poems were written in the form of narrative poems or ballads presenting the stories of a nation resistance against colonialism, i.e. represented by Hang Tuah who fought against Portuguese colonialism, Maria Martha Christina who fought against Dutch colonialism, and Sontanglelo who fought against Japanese colonialism. The realization of the three characters is a reaction to the colonial's social and political pressures in liberating their nation.

Keywords: national awareness. nationalism, colonialism, postcolonial, liberation.

Keywords


kesadaran kebangsaan; nasionalisme; penjajahan; postkolonial; pascakolonial; pembebasan

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24257/atavisme.v12i2.166.147-156

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